Common and Proper nouns


A noun is a word that represents a person, place, thing, or idea.

Nouns are a fundamental part of speech and are used to name and identify objects and concepts.

Here are some examples of nouns:

Person: Sarah, teacher, doctor

Place: New York City, beach, park

Thing: car, book, computer

Idea: love, freedom, happiness


Nouns can be further categorized into common nouns and proper nouns.


Common Nouns:

General Names:

Common nouns are used to refer to general, everyday things or entities. They are not specific to any particular person, place, or thing.

Examples: dog, cat, book, and city.


Not Capitalized:

Common nouns are typically not capitalized unless they appear at the beginning of a sentence.


No Particular Individuality:

They do not point to any specific, unique instance of the noun. For example, a dog could refer to any dog in the world.


Can Be Countable or Uncountable:

Common nouns can be countable (e.g., three dogs) or uncountable (e.g., water).

Proper Nouns:

Specific Names:

Proper nouns are used to refer to specific, unique individuals, places, or things. They provide a name to distinguish one from others.

Examples: John (a specific person), Paris (a specific city), and The Mona Lisa (a specific artwork).


Always Capitalized:

Proper nouns are always capitalized, regardless of where they appear in a sentence.


Indicate Individuality:

They indicate a particular individual or entity. John refers to a specific person named John, not just any person.


Usually Singular:

Proper nouns are usually singular. You wouldn’t say The Johns to refer to multiple people named John, but you could say The Smiths to refer to a family with the last name Smith.


Geographical Names:

Proper nouns often include names of people, places, institutions, brands, titles, and more.

Geographical names like countries, cities, and landmarks are commonly proper nouns.

In summary, common nouns are general and refer to non-specific entities, while proper nouns are specific names used to uniquely identify individuals, places, or things. The key difference is in the level of specificity and the capitalization of proper nouns.







Common and Proper Nouns

Collective, Material, and Abstract Nouns

The Case of the Noun: the Common and the Possessive Case of the Noun

Substantivized Adjectives

The Gender of the Noun

Personal Pronouns and their subcategories

Four Main Types of Verbs