Regular & Irregular Verb Patterns



Verbs in English can be classified into two main categories:

regular verbs and irregular verbs.

These categories are based on how the verbs change their forms to indicate tense, aspect, and agreement with the subject.

Let’s look up each category with examples:



Regular Verbs:

Regular verbs follow a predictable pattern when conjugated.

They form their past simple and past participle forms by adding -ed to the base form.

The present participle form is created by adding -ing to the base form.


Example with the verb walk:

Base Form: walk

Past Simple: walked

Past Participle: walked

Present Participle: walking

Other examples of regular verbs include: play (played, played), jump (jumped, jumped), and talk (talked, talked).



Irregular Verbs:

Irregular verbs do not follow the regular pattern of adding -ed to form their past simple and past participle forms.

Instead, each irregular verb has its own unique forms.

Additionally, the present participle form is created by adding -ing to the base form, just like regular verbs.


Vowel Change:

Some irregular verbs change their vowel sound in the past tense and past participle forms.

This change can involve vowel shifts, such as from i to a or from e to o.


Base Form: sing

Past Simple: sang

Past Participle: sung

Present Participle: singing



Double Forms:

Some irregular verbs have different forms for the past simple and past participle, which do not follow a consistent pattern.


Base Form: go

Past Simple: went

Past Participle: gone

Present Participle: going



No Change:

Some irregular verbs maintain the same form across all three tenses (base form, past simple, and past participle).


Base Form: cut

Past Simple: cut

Past Participle: cut

Present Participle: cutting


Completely Different Forms:

A few irregular verbs have entirely different forms for the past simple and past participle.


Base Form: eat

Past Simple: ate

Past Participle: eaten

Present Participle: eating



Prefixes or Suffixes:

Some irregular verbs involve prefixes or suffixes that change the base form in the past tense or past participle.


Base Form: write

Past Simple: wrote

Past Participle: written

Present Participle: writing




Suppletion occurs when an entirely different word is used for the past simple or past participle form.


Base Form: be

Past Simple: was/were

Past Participle: been

Present Participle: being



Table of Irregular Verbs:

Base form Past Simple Past Participle
abide abode abiden
arise arose arisen
awake awoke awoken
be was / were been
bear bore borne / born
become became become
begin began begun
bend bent bent
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast




build built built
burn burnt burnt
burst burst burst
buy bought bought
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
cling clung clung
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept
cut cut cut
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
dwell dwelt dwelt
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
flee fled fled
fling flung flung
fly flew flown
forbid forbade forbidden
forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
freeze froze frozen
get got got/gotten
give gave given
go went gone
grind ground ground
grow grew grown
hang hung hung
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
kneel knelt knelt
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
lean leaned / leant leaned / leant
learn learned / learnt learned / learnt
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
light lit lit
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
pay paid paid
put put put
read read read
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
saw sawed sawn
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
shake shook shaken
shave shaved shaven
shed shed shed
shine shone shone
shoot shot shot
show showed shown
shrink shrank shrunk
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
smell smelt smelt
sow sowed sown
speak spoke spoken
speed sped sped
spell spelt spelt
spend spent spent
spill spilt spilt
spin spun spun
spit spat spat
split split split
spoil spoilt spoilt
spread spread spread
spring sprang sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
strike struck struck
strive strove striven
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
swell swelled swollen
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
tread trod trodden
understand understood understood
wake woke woken
wear wore worn
weep wept wept
win won won
wind wound wound
write wrote written




Table of Irregular Verbs

Regular and Irregular Verbs

What is a Verb?

The Basic forms of The English verb

What is the Mood of a Verb?