Preposition “Without”

The preposition without has several meanings and can be used in various contexts.

Here are some of its common meanings:





Lack of Something:

Without is often used to indicate the absence or lack of something.


I can’t make coffee without water.


She went to the party without her phone.


He couldn’t sleep without his favorite teddy bear.







Not Using or Excluding:

It can also indicate that something is not being used or is excluded.


She solved the puzzle without any hints.


I’ll eat my salad without dressing.


They played the game without rules.








Outside or Beyond:

Without can imply being outside of a particular range or limit.


The temperature dropped to ten degrees without warning.


He left the room without saying a word.


The car ran for miles without any issues.







In Spite of:

It can indicate that something happens in spite of an obstacle or condition.


She finished the marathon without training.


He succeeded without any formal education.


They survived without any help.









Free from:

Without can mean being free from a particular quality or characteristic.


The painting was beautiful without a flaw.


He was without fear in the face of danger.


The garden was without weeds.










Outside of:

It can imply being outside a certain period or range.


The package arrived without the expected delivery time.


He can’t work without his usual office hours.


The store is closed without notice.









Not Having:

It can indicate not possessing something.


She managed to succeed without any special skills.


I can’t imagine life without you.


They lived happily without wealth.









Exemption or Exception:

In some legal contexts, without can signify an exemption or exception from a rule or requirement.


The defendant was released without bail.


The contract is null and void without proper signatures.


You can’t enter the restricted area without proper authorization.




These are some of the common meanings of the preposition without.

The specific meaning can vary depending on the context in which it is used.









Preposition without in combination with gerund

(the absence of an action): 


When the preposition without is used with gerund, it is often used to indicate the negation or absence of an action.

Here are some examples:


Without studying, I won’t pass the exam.

(Negation of studying as a necessary action for passing the exam.)


He left the party without saying goodbye to anyone.

(Negation of saying goodbye as an action when leaving the party.)


She managed to complete the project without asking for help.

(Negation of asking for help as an action during the project.)


They enjoyed the concert without clapping at the end.

(Negation of clapping as an action at the end of the concert.)


I can’t imagine my day without drinking coffee in the morning.

(Negation of drinking coffee as an action in the morning.)


He went on a hike without bringing any supplies.

(Negation of bringing supplies as an action for the hike.)


She cooked a delicious meal without using any recipes.

(Negation of using recipes as an action during cooking.)


They decided to go on a road trip without making any plans in advance.

(Negation of making plans as an action before the road trip.)


I managed to solve the puzzle without looking at the answer key.

(Negation of looking at the answer key as an action during solving the puzzle.)


He often falls asleep without watching television.

(Negation of watching television as an action before falling asleep.)








Without as an adverb (outside, out of):


When without is used as an adverb to mean outside or outdoors, it can describe a location or situation.

Here are some examples:


They decided to dine without, enjoying their meal in the garden.

(They chose to eat outdoors in the garden.)


We spent the evening sitting without, gazing at the stars.

(We sat outdoors, looking at the stars.)


The children played without until the sun went down.

(The children played outside until it got dark.)


She prefers to work without, finding inspiration in nature.

(She likes to work outdoors, drawing inspiration from the natural surroundings.)


They had a picnic without by the river.

(They had a picnic beside the river, in an outdoor setting.)


He read his book without on the porch swing.

(He read his book outdoors while sitting on the porch swing.)


The wedding ceremony was held without under a beautiful oak tree.

(The wedding took place outdoors, beneath a lovely oak tree.)


The campfire crackled without as they roasted marshmallows.

(The campfire burned outside as they toasted marshmallows.)


They set up a tent without and spent the night in the wilderness.

(They pitched a tent outdoors and camped in the wild.)


The concert was so popular that people stood without to listen.

(The concert was crowded, and some people stood outside to listen.)


In these examples, without is used as an adverb to describe activities or situations that occur in an outdoor or open-air setting.








Preposition without in phrasal verbs:


Without is used in various phrasal verbs to convey different meanings. Here are some examples of phrasal verbs with without:


Do Without: This means to manage or get by without something that is usually considered necessary or desirable.


We had to do without electricity for several hours during the storm.


He can do without a car in the city because of the excellent public transportation.




Go Without: Similar to do without, this phrasal verb means to endure or survive without something.


She’s decided to go without sugar in her diet.


The soldiers went without sleep for days during the mission.




Reckon Without: This means to fail to consider or anticipate something or someone in your plans or calculations.


They reckoned without the possibility of bad weather on their camping trip.


The team reckoned without the opponent’s strong defense during the game.




Live Without: This phrasal verb means to exist or continue one’s life without a particular thing or person.


I can’t live without my morning coffee.


She couldn’t imagine living without her best friend.




Run Without: In a business or organizational context, run without can mean to function or operate without a particular element.


The company had to run without its CEO for a month due to illness.


The computer program can run without an internet connection.


These phrasal verbs add different nuances to the use of without, indicating various actions, conditions, or situations in which the absence or presence of something is significant.








Word expressions with without:

Here are some word expressions and idiomatic phrases with without:


Without Doubt: This expression is used to emphasize certainty or the absence of doubt.


Without a doubt, she is the best candidate for the job.





Without Fail: This phrase means consistently or invariably, without exceptions.


He visits his grandmother every Sunday without fail.


The alarm clock wakes me up at 6 AM without fail.





Without Notice: This indicates that something happens suddenly or unexpectedly, often with little or no prior warning.


The company laid off employees without notice.


The landlord entered the apartment without notice.





Without the Knowledge (Of): This phrase is used when someone does something without the awareness or consent of others.


He took the cookies without the knowledge of his siblings.


The decision was made without the knowledge of the board members.





It Goes Without Saying: This means that something is so obvious that it doesn’t need to be mentioned explicitly.


It goes without saying that safety should be a top priority.


It goes without saying that honesty is important.





To Do Without (Somebody/Something): This phrase means to manage or survive without a particular person or thing, often implying difficulty or sacrifice.


She had to do without her car for a week while it was being repaired.


He can’t do without his morning coffee.





Without Prejudice: This legal term is used to indicate that a statement or action is made without affecting one’s legal rights or claims.


The settlement offer was made without prejudice to our future legal actions.


We can discuss this issue without prejudice to any existing agreements.





Without Regard (To): This means without taking into consideration or ignoring a particular factor or aspect.


They made decisions without regard to the cost.


The policy was implemented without regard to its impact on the environment.





Without Further Ado: This phrase is used to suggest that something should happen or be done immediately, without delay.


Let’s start the meeting without further ado.


The chef presented the dish without further ado.





Without a Trace: This means that something or someone has disappeared completely, leaving no evidence or indication.


The missing documents vanished without a trace.


He left the party without a trace, and no one knew where he went.



These expressions and phrases with without provide additional context and meaning to the use of the word and are commonly used in both formal and informal language.









Preposition – “Without”

Preposition – “Within”

Preposition – “Up”

Preposition – “Up”

Preposition – “Towards”

Prepositions – “Round” and Around”

Preposition – “To”

Preposition – “Off”