Pronunciation of letter groups:


Digraphs au and ou before ght:

When the digraphs au or ou appear before ght in English words, they are often pronounced as a long vowel sound similar to [ɔː].




daughter: [ˈdɔːtə(r)]

caught: [kɔːt]

thought: [θɔːt]






The i  before ld and nd:

When the letter i appears before the consonant combinations ld and nd, it is often pronounced as a short vowel sound similar to [aɪ].




child: [ʧaɪld]

mild: [maɪld]

kind: [kaɪnd]

find: [faɪnd]






The combination kn:

In many English words, the combination kn at the beginning of a word is often silent, and the word is pronounced as if the k were not present.




know: [nəʊ]

knife: [naɪf]

knock: [nɑk]

knight: [naɪt]








The combination ture:

In many English words, the combination ture is pronounced as [tʃə (r)]. This combination represents a sound change where the t sound is followed by the ch sound.




picture: [ˈpɪktʃə(r)]

adventure: [ədˈvɛntʃə(r)]

future: [‘fju: tʃə(r)]









The letter I before gh

Before gh the letter I sounds at the same way as in the Alphabet, like[ai]




high: [haɪ]

sigh: [saɪ]

night: [naɪt]










Gh in other positions:

In many English words, the combination gh is not pronounced in the middle or at the end of words. The words are pronounced as if the gh were absent.






eight: [eɪt]

sigh: [saɪ]

ghost: [ɡəʊst]





The combination ch:

The combination ch is pronounced as a voiceless postalveolar affricate sound [tʃ], which involves an initial stop sound followed by a fricative sound.




chin: [tʃɪn]

church: [tʃɜːrtʃ]

cheese: [tʃiːz]








The combination sh:

The combination sh is pronounced as a voiceless postalveolar fricative sound [ʃ], which is a hissing sound produced by placing the front of the tongue near the alveolar ridge without fully stopping the airflow.




she: [ʃi]

shell: [ʃɛl]

shoe: [ʃuː]

ship: [ʃɪp]



Voiceless fricative sound th:

When the combination th appears at the beginning or in the middle of words (particularly significant words), it is often pronounced as a voiceless interdental fricative sound like [θ].




thin: [θɪn]

Smith: [ smɪθ]







Voiced fricative sound th:

In function words (like articles, pronouns, and certain common words) and at the end of significant words between vowels, the combination th is often pronounced as a voiced interdental fricative sound [ð].


the: [ðə]

this: [ðɪs]

that: [ðæt]

they: [ðeɪ]

bathe: [beɪð]








Voiced affricative sound j:

The letter j is pronounced as a voiced palato-alveolar affricate sound [dʒ], similar to the j sound in judge.




just: [dʒʌst]

jet: [dʒɛt]

jump: [dʒʌmp]







g before e, i, y:

When the letter g is followed by the letters e, i, or y, it often produces a sound [dʒ], similar to the g sound in giant




page: [peɪdʒ]

gin: [dʒɪn]

gymnast: [ˈdʒɪm.næst]







g in other cases:

In most other cases, when the letter g is not followed by e, i, or y, it produces the typical hard g sound, similar to the g sound in go.




good: [ɡʊd]

gray: [ɡreɪ]








The letter w in wh:

In the combination wh, the letter w is pronounced as a voiceless labio-velar approximant sound, while the letter h is silent.




white: [waɪt]

whale: [weɪl]

whisper: [‘wɪspə(r)]

wheel: [wi:l]







The letter w in wr:

In the combination wr, the letter w is not pronounced. Instead, the sound is made directly with the following letter.




write: [raɪt]

wrist: [rɪst]

wrench: [rɛnʧ]

wrong: [rɔŋ]








The letter a and o after w, qu:

The letter a and o after w, qu are pronounced not according to the rule, but like in examples, given below.




word: [wɜ:d]

work: [wɜ:k]


want: [wɑnt]

was: [wɑz]

watch: [wɑʧ]


quantity: [‘kwɑntəti/

quart: [kwɔ:t]







Pronunciation of letter groups (letter combinations)- au, ou, ld, nd, kn, ture, gh, ch, sh, th, wh, wr in English

Pronunciation of letters- u, o, a, e, x, l,y and letter groups- ow, ng, er, or, rr in English

Pronunciation of the letter “a” before consonants

The S Sound Phonics

Vowel and Consonant Sounds in Syllable

What is Six Syllable Types?