The types of Adverbs:

In linguistics, adverbs are words that modify or describe verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs, providing additional information about how, when, where, or to what extent an action or quality occurs. Adverbs can be classified into various categories, including simple adverbs and derivative adverbs.


Simple Adverbs:

Simple adverbs are basic adverbs that do not require any additional modifications or suffixes to function. They are often used to express manner, time, place, degree, or frequency. Here are some examples of simple adverbs:

Manner: quickly, carefully, softly, beautifully, well

Time: now, yesterday, soon, often, always

Place: here, there, everywhere, nowhere

Degree: very, too, quite, almost, completely

Frequency: often, seldom, always, never

These adverbs can stand alone and don’t need any changes to be used in a sentence.

For example: She sings beautifully or

I always go to the park on Sundays.


Derivative Adverbs:

Derivative adverbs are formed by adding suffixes to other parts of speech, such as adjectives or nouns. These suffixes typically transform the base words into adverbs. The most common suffixes for forming derivative adverbs are –ly, -ward(s), and -wise.

Here are some examples of derivative adverbs:

ly: quickly, slowly, happily, angrily, clearly

Example: She spoke loudly during the presentation.

ward(s): backward, homeward, westward, upward, afterward(s)

Example: They are traveling eastwards to the mountains.

wise: clockwise, likewise, otherwise, lengthwise

Example: You should read the instructions lengthwise.




Exceptional forms of Adverbs:

It’s important to note that not all adverbs ending in ly are derived from adjectives; some are original adverbs.

For example: nowadays or sideways are not derived from any other word.

In some cases, adverbs can be formed from other adverbs.

For instance, you can create derivative adverbs like quickly from quick, happily from happy, and slowly from slow.

However, not all adverbs can be formed through derivation. Some adverbs, like here and there, have specific forms and cannot be modified with common suffixes. Additionally, not all words ending in -ly are adverbs; some may be adjectives or nouns.

Understanding simple and derivative adverbs helps you to add depth and precision to your language, making your communication more effective and expressive.


Adverbs and adjectives with the same form:

Some adverbs in English are identical to adjectives in form, meaning they look the same but function as adverbs when used in sentences. Let’s look at the examples:


Adjective: He is a fast runner. (Describes the noun runner.)

Adverb: He runs fast. (Modifies the verb runs, describing how he runs.)



Adjective: She has long hair. (Describes the noun hair.)

Adverb: They waited long. (Modifies the verb waited, describing how long they waited.)



Adjective: This country is  in the Far East. (Describes place of country.)

Adverb: They walked far. (Modifies the verb walked, describing how far they walked.)



Adjective: She has a little dog. (Describes the noun dog.)

Adverb: Please speak a little louder. (Modifies the verb speak, describing the degree of loudness.)



Adjective: They don’t have much money. (Describes the noun money.)

Adverb: She cares much for her friends. (Modifies the verb cares, describing the degree of care.)



Adjective: It’s an early appointment. (Describes the noun appointment.)

Adverb: She arrived early. (Modifies the verb arrived, describing the time of her arrival.)



Adjective: She has a daily routine. (Describes the noun routine.)

Adverb: The newspaper is published daily. (Modifies the verb published, indicating the frequency.)

In these examples, you can see how the same word can function as an adjective or an adverb based on its role in the sentence. When it describes a noun, it’s an adjective, but when it modifies a verb, it acts as an adverb.



Differences between Adverbs and Adjectives:

You can distinguish between adverbs and adjectives based on their functions in a sentence. Here are some key differences and examples to help you understand:


Adjective: Adjectives modify or describe nouns and pronouns, providing more information about their attributes or qualities. They answer questions like What kind?, Which one?, or How many?.

Example: The blue car is parked outside. (The adjective blue describes the noun car.)

Adverb: Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs, providing more information about how, when, where, or to what extent an action or quality occurs. They answer questions like How?, When?, Where?, or To what degree?.

Example: She speaks fluently. (The adverb fluently modifies the verb speaks, describing how she speaks.)



Adjective: Adjectives usually come before the nouns they modify. However, they can also follow linking verbs like be, become, seem, etc.

Example: Happy children played in the park. (Adjective happy comes before the noun children.)

Adverb: Adverbs can be placed in different positions in a sentence. They often appear before the main verb, after the auxiliary verb, or at the end of the sentence.

Example: She eagerly finished her assignment. (Adverb eagerly comes before the main verb finished.)




 Adverbs with two forms:

 There are adverbs with two forms, one of which coincides with the adjective form, while the other form is different. Here are some examples of such adverbs:



Adjective: The hard exam made me nervous.

Adverb: She worked hard to achieve her goals.

Adverb with different form: He can hardly wait for the movie to start.



Adjective: I missed the late bus.

Adverb: They arrived late to the party.

Adverb with different form: She lately seems preoccupied.



Adjective: I have got a close friend.

Adverb: Please stand close to me.

Adverb with different form: The event is closely related to the topic.



Adjective: He is an early riser.

Adverb: She arrived early for the meeting.

Adverb with different form: I earlier mentioned the issue.



Adjective: They made a quick decision.

Adverb: He ran quickly to catch the train.

Adverb with different form: She quickly finished her homework.



Adjective: The mountain peak is high.

Adverb: The bird flew high in the sky.

Adverb with different form: Prices have risen highly in recent months.



Adjective: The line is straight.

Adverb: Walk straight ahead.

Adverb with different form: He looked at her straightly in the eyes.



Adjective: She handed in her complete assignment.

Adverb: He completely forgot about the appointment.



Adjective: The house is near the beach.

Adverb: The shop is nearly empty.


These adverbs can have slightly different forms compared to their corresponding adjectives, which can be important to note to use them accurately in different contexts.





Adverbs with Particles in phrasal verbs:

The adverbs are often used as particles in phrasal verbs. These phrasal verbs consist of a main verb and one of these adverbs (particles) that changes the meaning of the main verb or adds a specific direction or emphasis to the action. Here is a list of some common phrasal verbs with these adverbs:


Think about (to consider).

Talk about (to discuss).

Bring about (to cause).



Walk across (to move from one side to another).

Come across (to find unexpectedly).



Walk along (to move parallel to something).

Sing along (to sing with someone).



Run away (to leave quickly).

Take away (to remove).



Go back (to return).

Write back (to reply).



Pass by (to go past).

Stand by (to support or be ready to help).



Sit down (to take a seat).

Calm down (to relax).



Fill in (to complete a form).

Move in (to enter a place).



Put on (to wear or place something).

Carry on (to continue).



Turn off (to stop a machine or device).

Get off (to disembark or leave a vehicle).



Go out (to leave home or go outside).

Find out (to discover).



Look over (to examine).

Talk over (to discuss thoroughly).



Go through (to pass from one side to the other).

Read through (to read from beginning to end).



Hide under (to be beneath or concealed by something).

Sleep under (to rest below).



Wake up (to stop sleeping).

Clean up (to tidy or make clean).


These phrasal verbs can have various meanings and usage depending on the context, so it’s essential to understand them in the context of the sentence to use them accurately.








click here The Forms of Adverbs

click here What is an Adverb?

click here What is a Verb?

click here The Sequence of Tenses

click here Four Main Types of Verbs

click here Degrees of Comparison of the Adjectives

click here What is an Adjective?